The most popular breed in most countries of the world.
Note: As we shall see, the dog called Labrador in England is a direct descendant of a dog called St. John in Labrador and Newfoundland. The use of the two names alternately may confuse, but "C'est la vie". The name Labrador is derived from the name of the dog's origin, Labrador County Newfoundland in northern Canada. The term retriever usually refers to dogs whose job is to bring the hunt after the hunter shoots it. The source of retriever on for Labrador differs slightly because originally named by English fishermen who came to Labrador and the name Retriever was given for bringing from the water fish and finishing nets that fell off the boat.
The history of the Labrador begins in the Labrador area of Newfoundland, Canada, where two races come from. The first is a dog that was used by fishermen and is called St. John Dog for St. John, the capital of the province, or the Lesser Newfoundland to distinguish it from the great Newfoundland. St. John is the ancestor of the Labrador developed in England in the nineteenth century.
Portuguese fishermen who arrived in Newfoundland in the sixteenth century brought with them the Portuguese Mastiff and probably his hybrid with the local Saint John created the now-familiar breed of Newfoundland, which used for work and guarding. Other crosses of St. John created additional breeds, including the Norfolk Retriever and others. There is a conjecture that the origin of St. John is a dog brought to the peninsula by the Vikings in the eleventh century and is called the "black bear dog". This hypothesis has no scientific basis today, and it is perhaps only a popular romantic story.
The Labrador is a direct descendant of the St. John race (completely extinct for reasons described below) and is developed from dogs imported to England from Labrador in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries by virtue of their reputation as excellent dogs. They gained popularity among nobles from northern England and Scotland, who used them for hunting rather than their original purpose. These nobles set up several Kennels, the most famous of which were the Count of Malmesbury, who gave some of his dogs to his friends the Fifth Duke of Buccleuch and his brother, Lord John Scott. Most of today's Labradors come from the Buccleuch Brothers' kennels. The St. John's dog was black with white spots on his face and feet and the British did not like the white stains so most of the development efforts focused on removing stains to create a black dog. For this purpose St. John may have been breed with other breeds but there is no record of this. The new dog breed has been named Labrador and has been mentioned here and there and in more official texts since 1839. Sometimes has white hairs showing here and there. The color of the first Labradors was black, which is a genetically dominant color. Over time, the breeders unexpectedly also appeared in other colors, chocolate in 1892 and yellow in 1899. These three colors are recognized by the dog breeders in the world. Although three-color dogs are all Labradors, there is a tendency to associate different colors with different roles. Yellow for guiding blind, black for work and hunting and chocolate for family dog and exhibitions. There is no evidence of the differences between the colors that justify this division except the tendency of breeders to cultivate the dogs for different tasks according to their color. The yellow color has two other derivatives that are darker - the darker is called red fox and slightly darker, called "red copper." There is also a silver color that is derived from the chocolate and its status is still unclear.
We know the Labrador as the most popular breed in the United States, Great Britain, France, Italy and Israel, but its popularity has gone through ups and downs and the race has almost been extinct several times in history. In 1780, the governor of Labrador Newfoundland decided to encourage sheep breeding. The many dogs who lived in the area harassed the sheep and brought the governor to issue a regulation forbidding holding more than one dog to the family. The law applies to all dogs in the province except those exported to England and the regulation had a decisive influence on St. John's dogs that its numbers were relatively small and continued to decrease. In 1885, in order to further encourage sheep farming, an expensive "license fee" was imposed on dogs, which was higher on females so that the breeders began to destroy the female pups immediately after their birth because there was no demand for them. The females were gone and the breed had no reproductive ability. Slowly the St. John's breed disappeared from Labrador Newfoundland (until it was completely extinct) and in 1880 the Labrador almost disappeared from England as the breeders stopped their activity.
Three old noblemen who had raised Labradors before had met bird hunters at one of their aunt's and saw a Labrador who was hunting. Their enthusiasm for the dog was so great that they decided to cooperate in the cause of making sure the breed will continue. To further hamper the popularity of the Labrador, the British fear of rabies in 1895 led to the enactment of the isolation law that required every dog entering Britain to undergo a solitary confinement period of six months.
The British Labrador Club was founded in 1916 by several British noblemen and the breed was recognized in the United States as early as 1917 the breed began to disappear again and only In 1933-1934, the sixth Duke of Buccleuch succeeded in importing several dogs and renewing the breed. All came to a happy ending to the Labrador breed and the Labrador is now the most popular dog in the United States, England, and many other countries.
The Labrador is considered reliable, very intelligent and easy to train. It is, therefore, the most common dog of blindness. A Labrador hybrid with a poodle has inherited the hypoallergenic poodle from the poodle, creating Halberdodel, a hypoallergenic guide dog that is taking its place as an ideal guide dog for allergies and asthma.